The Premack principle states that a person will perform a less preferred activity (low probability behavior) to gain access to a more preferred activity (high probability behavior). A less preferred activity is defined as one in which the individual is unlikely to choose to do on their own, thus developing the term low probability behavior. A more preferred activity is an activity that the individual would likely choose to engage in on their own, a high probability behavior.
Applied Behavior Analysis
In our survey of 478 BCBAs, the most common salary structure for full-time BCBAs is a simple annual salary with expectations for the number of billable hours completed each week (between 20-35 hours per week). The most common salary structure for part-time BCBAs is an hourly rate for both billable and non-billable activities.
The intentional use of the Matching Law allows you to manipulate concurrent schedules to influence behavior. This technique is especially useful when one schedule of reinforcement is outside of your control or when you want to avoid the negative effects of extinction. By increasing the magnitude of reinforcement for a behavior you want to see, you increase the likelihood of that behavior occurring.
Professionals in the field of ABA must understand some basic facts about reinforcement and punishment to create effective behavior change programs. First, there are important differences between positive and negative reinforcement and punishment. Second, the professional must plan for unintended consequences associated with reinforcement and punishment. Finally, neither reinforcement nor punishment are inherently good nor bad, ethical or unethical.
Although traditional sources say there are 3-4 functions of behavior (access, escape, [attention] and automatic), there is a better way to conceptualize the functions of behavior. Cipani and Schock (2010) created a behavioral diagnostic system that expands on traditional models to help us understand behavior on a deeper level. They describe 2 primary functions: access and escape then go on to identify the type of reinforcer and the mode of access (direct or socially-mediated). This method provides a comprehensive approach to understanding the functions of behavior.
The right data collection method provides information that a professional needs to determine programming changes. The wrong data collection system leads to inferior results. Many different factors contribute to choosing which data collection system is right for a given program. Let’s consider some of the differences between continuous and discontinuous data collection methods.
Parent training requires a combination of relationship development and an exchange of knowledge. Professionals walk a fine line between establishing themselves as the expert while building enough trust to encourage follow-through. Parents must believe you care about their child and your recommendations will make a difference. Merge Behavioral Skills Training (BST) with active listening skills and see the difference in your parent training sessions.
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) is one of the 5 specific types of differential reinforcement procedures commonly used in Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). During a DRO procedure, you reinforce the absence of the target behavior. Let’s talk about when and how to use DRO.
DRL provides a system for reducing a behavior without eliminating it. This form of differential reinforcement can be used in an assortment of different situations to gradually shape behavior over time.
Both DRA and DRI reinforce a functionally equivalent replacement behavior while limiting or eliminating reinforcement for the maladaptive behavior. The subtle yet highly important difference between these 2 interventions lies in their relation to the target behavior.