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Premack Principle: A Guide to Using the First/Then Rule

The Premack principle, developed by psychologist David Premack in 1965, provides critical insight into human behavior. Understanding and utilizing this principle allows you to arrange contingencies that motivate others. While this principle has important ramifications across domains, it is most well-known for its impact in Applied Behavior Analysis.

Contents

What Is The Premack Principle?
How To Implement The Premack Principle
Factors That Influence The Effectiveness Of The Premack Principle
Examples Of The Premack Principle
Precautions When Using the Premack Principle
FAQs
5 Ways to Use the Premack Principle You Haven’t Tried
Ethical Considerations When Implementing the Premack Principle
Research Related to the Premack Principle
References and Related Reading

What Is The Premack Principle?

The Premack principle states that a person will perform a less preferred activity (low probability behavior) to gain access to a more preferred activity (high probability behavior). A less preferred activity is defined as one in which the individual is unlikely to choose to do on their own, thus developing the term low probability behavior. A more preferred activity is an activity that the individual would likely choose to engage in on their own, a high probability behavior.

When a high probability behavior (high-P) is made contingent on the engagement in a low probability behavior (low-P), the high probability behavior serves as the reinforcer for the low probability behavior, making that behavior more likely to occur. This is usually presented to the learner in a first/then statement or visual (first _____, then _____). The key to utilizing this principle effectively is to ensure that the high-p activity is actually high-p in the moment it’s presented to the learner. Preferences for activities change frequently for different reasons so it’s important to be aware of the learner’s current motivation for activities.

What Are Other Names For The Premack Principle?

The Premack principle is also known by several different names including “Grandma’s rule,” “first/then,” and a “high-p/low-p sequence.” These terms are often used interchangeably but some people confuse them as being separate theories or interventions.

The term Grandma’s rule came about because of the if/then nature of the contingency. Grandma really knew what she was doing when she said, “if you eat all of your dinner, you can have dessert!” How many children have grown up earning dessert (a high-p activity) after finishing their dinner (a low-p activity)?

The other common names make sense when you look at the contingency underlying the principle. Most commonly, when stating the contingency to the learner, the interventionist says “first _____, then ______” making the name first/then an accurate description. When training parents or staff, it’s often best to choose 1 term and stick with it to avoid confusion. If staff are likely to hear other terms from other supervisors, you should help them understand the interchangeable nature of the terms.

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How To Implement The Premack Principle

The Premack principle’s simple nature makes it a great choice for parents and staff who are new to ABA. Implementing the Premack principle involves the following steps:

  1. Identify the low-p behavior or activity
  2. Identify the high-p behavior or activity
  3. Present the contingency to the learner either verbally or with visuals
  4. Wait for the learner to complete the low-p behavior or activity or continue to withhold access if the learner fails to complete the behavior or activity
  5. Grant access to the high-p behavior or activity

The steps are straightforward but it’s important to monitor treatment fidelity so ensure accurate implementation (use the fidelity checklist above). The greatest challenge often comes with accurately identifying an activity that motivates the learner for the “then” part of the contingency. Alternatively, some staff struggle when using a visual with this intervention because they tend to use the visual as a schedule and fail to ensure the high-p/low-p sequence.

Using Visuals

Using visuals with the Premack Principle may improve the learner’s understanding of the contingency and reduces the need to repeat the contingency verbally to evoke the low-p behavior. For learners who read, use a piece of paper or a dry erase board with the contingency written out as in the example below.

Premack Principle written depiction
Premack Principle

Learners who don’t yet read need the contingency presented in images or pictures such as in the example below:

Premack Principle visual depiction
Premack Principle

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Factors That Influence The Effectiveness Of The Premack Principle

Understanding a learner’s motivation in any given moment is the single most effective way to utilize the Premack principle effectively The Premack principle requires motivation for a specific activity to make it a high-p activity. Ensuring motivation for an activity necessitates an understanding of factors that influence reinforcer effectiveness including motivating operations (MOs).

Motivating operations alter the current effectiveness of an item or activity as a reinforcer (or punisher) in any given moment. They also alter the current frequency of behavior that has encountered reinforcement (or punishment) with that item or activity in the past.

Motivating operations have 2 effects on behavior:

  • Value-altering effects-change the value of a specific consequence as a reinforcer or punisher
  • Behavior-altering effects-change the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced or punished in the past

There are 2 types of MOs:

  • Establishing operations (EOs)
  • Abolishing operations (AOs)

Essentially, as they relate to the Premack principle, MOs are factors that influence the effectiveness of an item or activity as a reinforcer and may evoke behaviors that have produced the item or activity as a reinforcer in the past.

Establishing Operations

Establishing operations make an item or activity more effective as a reinforcer and evoke behaviors that have previously been reinforced by that item or activity.

Abolishing Operations

Abolishing operations make an item or activity less effective as a reinforcer and abate behaviors that have previously been reinforced by that item or activity.

Motivating operations, establishing operations, abolishing operations
Motivating Operations and Their Effect on Reinforcer Effectiveness and Behavior
Establishing OperationsAbolishing Operations
Value-Altering EffectIncreases the value of a reinforcerDecreases the Value of a Reinforcer
Behavior-Altering EffectEvokes behavior that has previously been reinforced by the item or activity Abates behavior that has previously been reinforced by the item or activity
ExampleRunning produces an EO for getting a drink from the refrigerator. Taking a run without carrying a drink increases the value of a drink as a reinforcer and evokes behaviors that have previously resulted in getting a drink (i.e. walking to the refrigerator, opening the door, removing a drink, opening the drink, etc.). In this example, deprivation along with engaging in an activity that creates thirst are the EOs that influence behavior.Drinking water produces an AO for getting a drink from the refrigerator. Drinking water reduces the value of a drink as a reinforcer and abates behaviors that have previously resulted in getting a drink (i.e. walking to the refrigerator, opening the door, removing a drink, opening the drink, etc.). In this example, satiation is the AO that influences behavior.
Examples of Establishing Operations and Abolishing Operations

Competing Contingencies

In the real world, when trying to account for motivating operations, professionals often encounter competing contingencies. These are often unplanned contingencies that interfere with the effectiveness of intervention implementation.

In the examples above, if you’re trying to teach the individual to get a bottle of water from the refrigerator, you rely on deprivation to have an evocative effect on the behaviors needed to obtain the bottle of water. If someone hands the individual a bottle of water before he walks to the refrigerator, there is no need for the individual to complete the task on his own. This noncontingent delivery of water competes with the contingency you planned to evoke the behaviors needed to get the bottle of water.

When interventions fail to result in the expected outcome, check for contingencies that compete with the one you created. These competing contingencies are usually unintentional or delivered by someone who doesn’t truly understand motivation.

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Examples Of The Premack Principle

There are limitless possibilities available when using the Premack principle. Each one must be specific to the learner’s motivation at any given moment. Below are some examples of the Premack principle.

  • First clean your room, then you can play video games.
  • Get your homework done, then you can watch TV.
  • If you eat your vegetables, you can have ice cream.
  • Do you want to go swimming? Get your bathing suit on and then we will go.
  • You can have a break after you finish 2 math problems.
  • First put your cup in the sink, then we can blow bubbles.

The Premack principle can be depicted using the ABCs of behavior as in the example below of a learner complying with the demand to use the bathroom:

AntecedentBehavior Consequence
RBT says, “first bathroom, then video.”Learner walks to the bathroom.Learner receives a video.

For a learner who does not comply with the demand, this is what the ABCs would look like:

AntecedentBehaviorConsequence
RBT says, “first bathroom, then video.”Learner says, “no” or refuses to transition.RBT waits and blocks access to the high-p activity.

With the Premack principle, staff can avoid engaging in a power struggle because the contingency is in effect whether the learner complies or not. In the example above, the learner can go about his normal activities without gaining access to the video. Once he eventually goes to the bathroom, staff can then provide access to the video.

Watch the video below for another example!

When you first teach the learner about the Premack principle, you might choose to present a mid-p behavior followed by a high-p behavior. Depending on the learner, this might offer a greater opportunity for the learner to encounter the high-p behavior, especially if the learner is prone to task refusal. For example, if the learner likes to play trains, but is highly motivated for the iPad, you might present the contingency “first trains, then iPad.” This increases the likelihood that the learner complies and encounters reinforcement.

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Precautions When Using the Premack Principle

Due to the potential need for manipulation of motivating operations, professionals must carefully consider the ethical implications of using the Premack principle (see the detailed table below). While it’s common and appropriate for adults to restrict access to some items and activities that children enjoy, restricting activities may be unethical depending on many factors including:

  • Age of the learner-restricting access to preferred items and activities for adults is often unethical
  • The nature of the activity-restricting access to preferred activities the provide comfort or other basic needs is inherently unethical

In a study by Hanley, Iwata, Thompson, and Lindberg (2000), the authors used stereotypic behavior as a reinforcer for not engaging in stereotypic behavior. Using DRA and the Premack principle, they reinforced object manipulation and blocked the participants’ ability to engage in stereotypic behavior. The question is not necessarily “does the Premack principle work in this situation” but rather “should we restrict an individual’s right to engage in stereotypic behavior to make this intervention effective?”

For more information about stereotypies, read our post: What is Autism? Understanding ASD to better serve your clients .

To ensure ethical and effective practices, many learners can learn to restrict their own behavior and use the Premack principle when working toward their own goals. Make sure you consider the ethical implications of manipulating motivating operations before you get started using the Premack principle.

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FAQs

Still have questions? You’re not alone! Below is a list of frequently asked questions about the Premack Principle.

Is The Premack Principle An Antecedent Intervention?

Yes, the Premack principle is considered an antecedent intervention because it reduces the impact of common antecedents on behavior. In other words, presenting a contingency that utilizes the Premack principle makes maladaptive behavior less likely to occur. This is the nature of an antecedent intervention.

Is The Premack Principle Supported By Research?

According to the National Standards Project (National Autism Center, 2015), behavioral interventions including both antecedent and consequence strategies are among the 14 interventions considered “established” in the research. This means that there is a significant body of research that supports the use of these interventions. The Project did not separate out specific interventions as many studies included a complex combination of interventions without a component analysis to determine which interventions actually impacted behavior.

Many studies include the Premack principle as an antecedent component to reduce maladaptive behavior in children with autism (McNamee-McGrory & Cipani, 1995; Hanley, Iwata, Thompson, & Lindberg, 2000; Litoe & Pumroy, 1975).

Are there any limitations to the Premack Principle?

Yes, there are a few limitations to keep in mind. Firstly, the effectiveness of using a preferred activity as reinforcement depends on the individual’s preferences. What is considered reinforcing for one person may not be motivating for another. Secondly, the Premack Principle assumes that the individual understands the relationship between the preferred and less preferred activities. If they do not recognize the connection, the principle may not be as effective. Lastly, it’s important to consider ethical concerns and ensure that the reinforcement used is appropriate and does not harm the individual.

Can the Premack Principle be applied in educational settings?

Absolutely! The Premack Principle can be applied in educational settings to motivate students. For instance, a teacher can use a preferred activity, such as free time or playing games, as a reward for completing assigned tasks or participating actively in class. By employing the principle, educators can create incentives that encourage students to engage in desired behaviors or complete tasks they might otherwise find less appealing.

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5 Ways to Use the Premack Principle You Haven’t Tried

Professionals commonly use this intervention to reduce demand refusal, but there are many practical applications beyond this use. Let’s take a look at some new ways to use this established principle of behavior.

1. Reduce the Intensity of a Special Interest

Children with autism engage in high rates of repetitive behavior and frequently have restricted and repetitive interests. For some children, these interests take on an almost obsessive quality where the child will engage in one behavior to the exclusion of most others. Consistently requiring that the child engage in an effortful task prior to gaining access to this special interest, may, over time, reduce the intensity of that special interest.

For example, a child who only wants to play Minecraft on the iPad may have difficulty playing with anything else. Consistently requiring something effortful before granting access to that activity may reduce the overall intensity of the interest for that activity. This is almost the Premack Principle in reverse.

Typically you want to increase the likelihood that a child engages in a less preferred behavior by offering a more preferred activity after (first/then). In this instance, the sequence remains the same; however, the intent is to reduce the intensity of the desire (MO) for the preferred activity.

2. Teach Peer Initiations by Having a Peer Provide Access to the Preferred Activity

Pairing peers with reinforcement develops a preference for interactions with peers. When you combine this with the Premack Principle, the child learns to approach the peer when they complete the first activity. Through repetition this builds the child’s ability to initiate interactions with peers, although you may still need to program for generalization across situations that don’t include the Premack Principle.

Here’s an example:

You are working with Juan, a 5-year-old boy with autism. While he doesn’t communicate vocally, he is able to use LAMP on an iPad to request some of his favorite things. He struggles with playing functionally with playground equipment aside from the swing (his favorite activity). In order to teach functional use of equipment you decide to use the Premack Principle. You present a visual of “first slide, then swing.”

You decide to take this just a step further and also work on initiating an interaction with a peer. To accomplish this, you have Kevin use Juan’s favorite swing while Juan goes down the slide. Once Juan goes down the slide, you praise him and say, “now you can swing!” You guide Juan to the swing and prompt him to approach Kevin with his device and ask for the swing. Because you had prepared Kevin with how to respond, he says, “sure!” and gives Juan the swing. You repeat this process until Juan begins to approach Kevin independently.

In the above example, using the Premack Principle targets 2 key skills. That’s a lot of bang for your buck! With such limited time to work with children or train staff to implement interventions, crafting interventions that provide multiple benefits offers efficient solutions.

3. Improve Time Management Skills with the Premack Principle

Use the Premack Principle to improve your own time management skills as well as those of your clients. In this fast-paced world we experience constant pressure to accomplish more in less time. Utilizing the Premack Principle in regards to necessary tasks, helps you and your client accomplish this while feeling better about it!

Consistently sequencing more preferred tasks after less preferred tasks reduces the resistance to those less preferred tasks, whether those are your own tasks or your clients. Consider this: a car experiences the resistance of the friction between the tires and the road, but if you give it a little gas the friction matters considerably less. When you use the Premack Principle, the less preferred task provides the friction, but the more preferred task provides the gas. The more preferred the task, the more gas you are giving, and the less the friction matters.

Here’s an example:

At work, you frequently put off completing those tasks you don’t want to do, namely documentation. You have been using the time management strategy of getting easy things done and off your list first so you don’t have to worry about them later. What seems to happen is that you end up never accomplishing those tasks you don’t want to do until the very last minute. This leaves you feeling stressed and overwhelmed.

You decide to use the Premack Principle and apply it to your time management. First, you make a list of all the tasks you must accomplish by the end of the day, in order of priority. Then you resequenced them so that a more preferred activity always follows a less preferred activity. Using this technique encourages you to get through those more difficult tasks to access the ones you would rather spend time doing.

This video by Aubrey Daniels describes the impact of consistently completing less preferred tasks before more preferred tasks. He is well known for his work in leadership and management and he knows how to get things done!

Just as you apply this to your own time management, you can assist your clients in developing these habits. One of the best ways to teach this is through the use of schedules. Teach the to create a schedule and sequence the activities so that more preferred activities follow less preferred activities. For more ideas about using schedules, read our post: Antecedent Interventions: Complete Guide.

4. Use the Premack Principle as a Self-Management Strategy

Self-management is often the ultimate goal not only for our clients but ourselves as well. Teach your clients to establish more self-control, better attention, delayed gratification and self-motivation using the Premack Principle. Reinforcing the independent utilization of the Premack Principle to delay gratification or to attend to tasks supports the child’s use of the intervention as a self-management strategy.

Here’s an example:

You have been working with Julie, a 12-year-old with autism, who has some behavioral issues related to avoiding tasks she doesn’t want to do You teach her to use the Premack Principle to motivate herself to get her work done. Each time she uses the principle, you provide direct reinforcement in the form of social praise, but you also use a token economy so she can earn different backup reinforcers such as time on the computer or lunch with the vice principal.

Take a look at this video by Joel Obermayer about self-management to learn more.

5. Expand Potential Reinforcer Arrays

When a highly preferred activity consistently follows a less preferred activity, the child begins to associate the less preferred activity with the more preferred activity. This can lead to the less preferred activity developing the characteristics of a reinforcer.

Wow, that sounded confusing. Let’s look at an example:

A child consistently earns time to watch a video for building a block tower. Over time, building the block tower may take on some reinforcing value in itself. If this association becomes strong enough, the blocks may become reinforcers, expanding the child’s array of potential reinforcers.

The Premack Principle has many possible uses beyond the basics. These creative approaches will expand your practice and maybe even help you develop some skills of your own!

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Ethical Considerations When Implementing the Premack Principle

The table below presents some important ethical considerations when utilizing the Premack principle. The table includes specific action steps to help you ensure you practice in an ethical way.

Ethical ConcernDescriptionAction Steps
AutonomyUsing the Premack Principle to reinforce certain behaviors may intrude on an learner’s autonomy.Respect learner right to autonomy by obtaining informed consent and involving them in decision-making processes. If the learner cannot provide verbal consent, pay attention to his cues for assent.
Coercion and ManipulationApplying the Premack Principle may involve manipulating learners into engaging in desired behaviors.Ensure that reinforcement strategies are voluntary and not coercive, respecting the learner’s free will.
Equity and FairnessThere is a risk of inequitable distribution of reinforcement if certain learners have access to preferred activities or behaviors while others do not.Promote fairness and equity by providing equal opportunities for reinforcement and considering learner preferences and needs.
Potential for ExploitationThe Premack Principle could be misused to exploit learners by forcing them to engage in undesired activities for the sake of reinforcement.Use the Premack Principle ethically by focusing on mutually agreed-upon and meaningful goals and ensuring that learners are not exploited or harmed.
Lack of Individualized TreatmentUsing the Premack Principle may overlook learner differences and fail to address specific needs and preferences.Tailor reinforcement strategies to each learner’s unique characteristics, interests, and abilities to promote personalized and effective treatment.
Potential for Emotional ManipulationThe use of reinforcement may inadvertently manipulate learners’ emotions to achieve desired behaviors.Be mindful of the emotional impact of reinforcement strategies and prioritize emotional well-being by fostering a positive and supportive environment.
Informed Consent and Decision-MakingInformed consent and the right to make decisions about one’s own behavior may be compromised when applying the Premack Principle.Obtain informed consent from learners or their legal guardians and involve them in decision-making processes to ensure their rights are respected.
Reinforcer Appropriateness and EffectivenessThe chosen reinforcers may not be appropriate or effective for the learner, leading to ineffective outcomes.Conduct thorough assessments to identify preferred and effective reinforcers, considering the learner’s preferences, needs, and developmental level.
Generalization and Maintenance of BehaviorThe use of the Premack Principle may focus solely on specific behaviors in a specific context without promoting generalization and maintenance across contexts.Implement strategies to facilitate generalization and maintenance of desired behaviors through systematic fading of reinforcement and consistent application across settings.
Potential for OverjustificationExcessive reliance on the Premack Principle may diminish intrinsic motivation for engaging in behaviors.Balance the use of the Premack Principle with opportunities to foster intrinsic motivation, ensuring a healthy balance between external reinforcement and internal drive.
Long-Term Impact on BehaviorRelying solely on external reinforcement may limit the development of internal self-regulation skills.Gradually fade the use of external reinforcement while promoting intrinsic motivation and self-regulation skills to foster long-term behavior change and independence.
Cultural Sensitivity and DiversityReinforcement choices may not align with an learner’s cultural values or may inadvertently perpetuate biases.Respect cultural diversity by considering learner values, beliefs, and practices when selecting reinforcers and ensure reinforcement strategies are culturally sensitive.
Individual Rights and DignityThe use of reinforcement should not violate an learner’s rights or compromise their dignity and self-worth.Uphold and protect learner rights and dignity by treating learners with respect, promoting autonomy, and avoiding practices that demean or devalue their worth.
Potential for Satiation and HabituationOveruse or excessive reliance on a specific reinforcer may lead to satiation or habituation, reducing its effectiveness.Monitor reinforcer effectiveness over time, periodically reassess preferences, and ensure a variety of reinforcers are available to prevent satiation and habituation effects.

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Research Related to the Premack Principle

Below is a table summarizing research articles related to using the Premack Principle. The table includes important action steps to help you put these ideas into practice.

Article TitleSummaryAction Steps for Application
A Component Analysis of “Stereotypy as Reinforcement” for Alternative Behavior (Hanley et al., 2000)The study examined the effectiveness of using alternative behaviors as reinforcement to reduce stereotypy in individuals with developmental disabilities. The results showed that reinforcing alternative behaviors decreased stereotypy more effectively than providing attention alone.-Identify alternative behaviors that can serve as reinforcement for the target behavior.
-Develop an intervention plan that incorporates reinforcement of alternative behaviors.
-Conduct ongoing assessment of the effectiveness of the intervention by monitoring changes in stereotypy and alternative behavior.
The Effects of the Premack Principle on On-Task Behavior, Challenging Behavior, and Correct Responding (Herrod, 2022)The dissertation explored the application of the Premack Principle to increase on-task behavior and correct responding while reducing challenging behaviors in students. The findings indicated that using preferred activities as reinforcement improved on-task behavior and correct responding while decreasing challenging behaviors.-Identify preferred activities or tasks that can be used as reinforcement for target behaviors.
-Design intervention plans that incorporate the Premack Principle by offering access to preferred activities contingent upon desired behavior.
-Monitor and measure changes in on-task behavior, correct responding, and challenging behaviors throughout the intervention.
Applications of the Premack Principle: A Review of the Literature (Herrod et al., 2023)This literature review examined various applications of the Premack Principle across different populations and behaviors. It highlighted the effectiveness of using high-probability behaviors as reinforcers for low-probability behaviors.-Review and analyze the literature on the application of the Premack Principle in specific populations or target behaviors relevant to your practice.
-Consider the feasibility and appropriateness of using high-probability behaviors as reinforcers for low-probability behaviors in your intervention plans.
-Implement the Premack Principle in a systematic and consistent manner, tracking the impact on the target behaviors.
The Premack Principle, Response Deprivation, and Establishing Operations (Klatt & Morris, 2001)The article explored the relationship between the Premack Principle, response deprivation, and establishing operations. It discussed how response deprivation can create conditions for the Premack Principle to be effective in increasing the frequency of low-probability behaviors.-Assess response deprivation conditions and identify behaviors with a low baseline frequency that can be targeted for intervention.
-Utilize high-probability behaviors that the individual is currently deprived of as reinforcers for low-probability behaviors.
-Continuously monitor and adjust the reinforcement schedule based on changes in behavior frequency and response deprivation levels.
Response Deprivation and Reinforcement in Applied Settings: A Preliminary Analysis (Konarski Jr et al., 1980)The study examined the effects of response deprivation on the reinforcing properties of stimuli in applied settings. It highlighted how response deprivation can increase the effectiveness of reinforcement and behavior change interventions.-Identify situations or behaviors where response deprivation may be present or relevant to the desired behavior change.
– Incorporate interventions that involve providing access to high-probability behaviors that are limited or deprived.
-Continuously evaluate the impact of response deprivation and reinforcement interventions on behavior change and adjust strategies as needed.
Motivating Operations and Terms to Describe Them: Some Further Refinements (Laraway et al., 2003)The article proposed refinements to the terminology used to describe motivating operations (MOs) in behavior analysis. It emphasized the importance of precise language in discussing MOs and their impact on behavior.-Familiarize yourself with the refined terminology and definitions proposed in the article to enhance communication and understanding of MOs.
-Incorporate the refined terminology when discussing MOs in assessment, treatment planning, and progress reporting.
-Use precise and specific language to describe the impact of MOs on behavior and reinforcement processes.
A Brief Review of Classroom Group-Oriented Contingencies (Litoe & Pumroy, 1975)The article provided a brief review of group-oriented contingencies in classroom settings. It discussed various types of group contingencies and their potential effectiveness in promoting desirable behavior.-Familiarize yourself with the different group-oriented contingencies discussed in the article, such as independent, dependent, and interdependent group contingencies.
-Evaluate the applicability of group-oriented contingencies in your classroom or educational setting to promote desired behavior and academic performance.
-Design and implement group contingencies that are appropriate for the specific needs and characteristics of the students.
Reduction of Inappropriate “Clinging” Behaviors in a Preschooler through Social Skills Training and Utilization of the “Premack” Principle (McNamee-McGrory & Cipani, 1995)The article described a case study in which social skills training and the application of the Premack Principle were used to reduce inappropriate clinging behaviors in a preschooler. The interventions successfully reduced the clinging behaviors and improved social interactions.-Conduct a functional assessment to understand the function and context of the inappropriate clinging behavior.
-Develop and implement social skills training interventions that target appropriate replacement behaviors and reduce the need for clinging.
-Incorporate the Premack Principle by providing access to preferred activities or interactions contingent upon appropriate social behavior.
Using ABA Principles to Change Challenging Behavior and Promote Communication of Children with ASD (Vaďurová & Bauerová)The article discussed the application of ABA principles in changing challenging behaviors and promoting communication skills in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). It highlighted the importance of functional analysis, individualized interventions, and reinforcement strategies.-Conduct a comprehensive functional analysis to identify the antecedents and consequences maintaining the challenging behaviors and communication difficulties of children with ASD.
-Develop individualized interventions that incorporate ABA principles, such as positive reinforcement, prompting, and shaping techniques.
-Continuously monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions, making necessary adjustments based on ongoing assessment and data analysis.
Developing and Enhancing Adherence to a Telehealth ABA Parent Training Curriculum for Caregivers of Children with Autism (Yi & Dixon, 2021)The study focused on developing and improving adherence to a telehealth Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) parent training curriculum for caregivers of children with autism. The research highlighted strategies to enhance engagement and adherence to remote training.-Develop a telehealth ABA parent training curriculum that includes clear instructions, video demonstrations, and interactive components.
-Provide ongoing support and guidance to caregivers through virtual platforms, including regular check-ins and Q&A sessions.
-Utilize behavior change techniques, such as goal setting, self-monitoring, and reinforcement, to enhance caregiver adherence and participation in the training program.

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References and Related Reading

Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (1987). Applied behavior analysis. Columbus: Merrill Pub.

Fong, E. H. (2020). Examining cross-cultural supervision in applied behavior analysis. In Multiculturalism and Diversity in Applied Behavior Analysis (pp. 181-193). Routledge.

Hanley, G. P., Iwata, B. A., Thompson, R. H., & Lindberg, J. S. (2000). A component analysis of “stereotypy as reinforcement” for alternative behaviorJournal of Applied Behavior Analysis33(3), 285-297.

Herrod, J. L. (2022). The Effects of the Premack Principle on On-Task Behavior, Challenging Behavior, and Correct Responding (Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia).

Herrod, J. L., Snyder, S. K., Hart, J. B., Frantz, S. J., & Ayres, K. M. (2023). Applications of the Premack Principle: A review of the literature. Behavior Modification47(1), 219-246.

Klatt, K. P., & Morris, E. K. (2001). The Premack principle, response deprivation, and establishing operationsThe Behavior Analyst24(2), 173-180.

Konarski Jr, E. A., Johnson, M. R., Crowell, C. R., & Whitman, T. L. (1980). Response deprivation and reinforcement in applied settings: A preliminary analysisJournal of Applied Behavior Analysis13(4), 595-609.

Laraway, S., Snycerski, S., Michael, J., & Poling, A. (2003). Motivating operations and terms to describe them: Some further refinementsJournal of applied behavior analysis36(3), 407-414.

Litoe, L., & Pumroy, D. K. (1975). A brief review of classroom group-oriented contingenciesJournal of Applied Behavior Analysis8(3), 341.

McNamee-McGrory, V., & Cipani, E. (1995). Reduction of Inappropriate” Clinging” Behaviors in a Preschooler through Social Skills Training and Utilization of the” Premack” Principle.

National Autism Center (2015). Findings and Conclusions: National Standards ProjectPhase 2. Randolph, MA.

Vaďurová, P. H., & Bauerová, J. Using ABA principles to change challenging behavior and promote communication of children with ASD.

Yi, Z., & Dixon, M. R. (2021). Developing and enhancing adherence to a telehealth ABA parent training curriculum for caregivers of children with autismBehavior analysis in practice14(1), 58-74.

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