Master ABA

The Competing Behavior Pathway: The Secret to Choosing Effective Interventions for your BIP

Function-based interventions are a critical component of any behavior intervention plan (BIP). Function-based interventions work by first identifying the function or purpose of the problem behavior, and then designing strategies tailored to address the specific needs of the individual. By understanding the underlying function of the behavior, practitioners can develop targeted intervention plans that maximize success and minimize potential drawbacks.

In order to choose the most effective function-based interventions, it’s critical to consider environmental and cultural variables that influence the appropriateness of interventions. Failing to do this results in poor outcomes due to low treatment fidelity. Once these variables are identified, the BCBA can then select appropriate strategies, which may range from environmental modifications to skill-building activities, to be included in a comprehensive intervention plan. The Competing Behavior Pathway is one of the best tools to help you develop an effective plan.

Key Takeaways

  • Function-based interventions focus on the primary variables that maintain of problem behavior, leading to targeted and effective strategies.
  • Consideration of environmental and cultural variables is crucial for choosing and implementing an appropriate intervention plan.
  • Accurate identification of the functions of behavior is vital in designing tailored strategies to address individual needs effectively.

The Importance of Choosing Function-Based Interventions

Function-based interventions are crucial in addressing problem behaviors in learners. These interventions focus on identifying the function, or reinforcers, behind a learner’s challenging behavior and targeting it with specific strategies tailored to address the underlying cause.

Selecting the appropriate function-based interventions for a given learner’s behavior is essential to the success of the Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) that meets the unique needs of the learner. If fail to choose a functionally-equivalent replacement behavior, the learner will choose a behavior on his own which may be more harmful than the original target behavior.

Function-based interventions:

  • Address the root cause of the target behavior
  • Are highly individualized to the learner’s unique situation
  • Empower learners
  • Focus on proactive rather than reactive strategies

Traditional, one-size-fits-all approaches often focus on merely suppressing unwanted behaviors, without considering the underlying reasons why they occur. In contrast, function-based interventions focus on teaching the learner meaningful skills. By uncovering the motivation behind the behavior, BCBAs can design interventions that not only target the problematic behavior directly but also replace it with more appropriate and functional alternatives.

Function-Based Interventions emphasize proactive measures to prevent challenging behaviors before they occur. By focusing on antecedent strategies, BCBAs can modify the environment to minimize triggers and discourage the emergence of unwanted behaviors. This proactive approach fosters a positive and supportive environment, setting the stage for learners to develop essential self-regulation and coping skills, leading to improved behavior and overall well-being.

Function-Based Interventions offer a data-driven approach to behavior change. BCBAs collect extensive data during functional assessments, which informs the development of behavior intervention plans. This data-driven decision-making ensures that interventions are based on empirical evidence, enhancing their reliability and efficacy.

Steps to Choosing the Right Function-Based Intervention

Gathering Data from Functional Assessment

The first step in choosing the right function-based intervention is gathering data from the functional assessment (FBA, FA, or PFA). This assessment is a comprehensive evaluation of an learner’s behavior to determine the cause or what a learner gets out of a particular behavior. It is essential to accurately identify the function of the behavior, such as obtaining attention or avoiding a specific environment or situation. You will use these data to understand the learner’s target behavior.

You need to understand the most common:

  • Setting events
  • Antecedents
  • Consequences

Make sure to consider all the different variables that maintain the learner’s target behaviors. Include precursor behaviors as well as other behaviors that frequently co-occur with the most serious of the learner’s target behaviors. Understanding the full context of the behavior will help you develop a highly specific plan for your unique learner.

Conducting Research

Once the data have been collected, the next step is conducting research to find evidence-based practices and interventions that match the function of the behavior. This may involve reviewing scientific articles and comparing different approaches to find the best fit for the learner or situation. Additionally, comprehensive research can provide insights into the effectiveness and potential benefits of various interventions.

Many tools are available to help you find the most relevant research. Google Scholar is a great place to start because it’s publicly available and you don’t need to log into an account.

In Google Scholar, when the link appears on the right side of the screen, the full article is usually available. There are helpful links below each of the articles that can help you find more relevant articles, including “Cited by” which provides a list of articles that site the article, and “Related articles.”

All the articles you find will provide a list of references. This is a great source for other related articles. You will find links to many articles right within the article. This makes it easy to quickly find a large number of related articles.

The BACB provides access to ProQuest and 9 different journals that are highly important in our field. These are great tools for your research and staying up-to-date on best practices in our field.

The BACB gives all BCBAs and BCBA-Ds access to:

  • The Analysis of Verbal Behavior (full text is unavailable for the most recent year’s issues)
  • Behavior Analysis in Practice (full text is unavailable for the most recent year’s issues)
  • Behavior Modification
  • Behavioral Interventions
  • Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
  • Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
  • Journal of Organizational Behavior Management
  • Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions
  • Perspectives on Behavior Science (full text is unavailable for the most recent year’s issues)

These journals are great for research, but it can be hard to find articles related to specific topics. They are often a great way to browse and see what topics are coming up most often in recent research.

You want to consider the following factors when searching for research:

  • Diagnosis
  • Age
  • Environment
  • Target behavior
  • Resources required

This video shows how I use Google Scholar to conduct research.

Identifying Environmental and Cultural Factors

The final step in gathering the information you need to choose function-based interventions is identifying environmental and cultural factors that may be contributing to the behavior and that may impact treatment decisions. Considering these factors ensures that the chosen interventions are not only effective but also sensitive to the individual’s cultural background and compatible with their environment.

For example, an intervention designed for a school setting may not be suitable for a home or community setting. Similarly, accounting for cultural factors could mean adapting communication styles or incorporating culturally relevant materials into the intervention. If you fail to consider these factors, your behavior plan will likely not be successful.

Completing the Competing Behavior Pathway

The Competing Behavior Pathway is a crucial step in selecting function-based interventions for addressing problem behavior. It enables BCBAs to systematically analyze the different variables that maintain target behavior and develop an effective plan to address these variables.

Use the competing behavior pathway to choose interventions to address the most common:

  • Setting events
  • Antecedents
  • Target behavior(s)
  • Consequences

Going through this process step-by-step helps to develop a comprehensive behavior intervention plan (BIP) that meets the needs of your individual learner. The Competing Behavior Pathway pictured below provides a visual to make the process easier.

competing behavior pathway, the process for choosing function-based interventions

To complete the Competing Behavior Pathway, begin in the top left and work your way to the bottom right. The top row includes the most common:

  • Setting events
  • Antecedents
  • Behaviors that are part of the context
  • Consequences

Next, comes the work of planning the route to the desired outcomes. To do this, you will complete the remaining pieces of the Competing Behavior Pathway:

  • Functionally-equivalent replacement behavior
  • Setting event accommodations
  • Antecedent interventions
  • Desired behavior
  • Consequence Interventions

The video below walks you through the examples here.

Functionally-Equivalent Replacement Behavior

The functionally-equivalent replacement behavior is a behavior that the learner engages in when the antecedents come up that results in the same consequences as the target behavior(s) . This is often not your terminal goal, but is a behavior that is preferable to the target behavior. Take a look at the example below. The top row is data that comes from the FBA.

Example of the replacement behavior in the competing behavior pathway.

In this example, the learner engages in property destruction and refusal when there’s a demand and he’s denied access to his video games. The maintaining consequence is that he often gets access to the video game.

Choose a replacement behavior that results in the same consequence as the target behavior. Here, that would be him asking for more time with his video game. Ultimately, his mother might need him to transition away from the video game more quickly but asking for more time is far preferable to property destruction since he has broken several windows.

Let’s look at one more example.

Competing behavior pathway attention example

In this example, the learner engages in SIB when attention is restricted or when he spends time alone. The maintaining consequence is attention from his parents. Choose a functionally-equivalent replacement behavior that results in the learner receiving the same consequence. In this example, you might teach the learner to ask for his parent’s attention by saying “play with me. ” If the learner doesn’t speak, you might teach him an alternative way to communicate this phrase (i.e. picture exchange or communication device).

Setting Event Accommodations

Next consider the most common setting events and determine how you will adjust the environment, expectations and/or interactions to reduce the impact of these setting events on the learner’s behavior. Let’s take a look at our examples again.

Competing Behavior Pathway Demand and Access Example Setting Events

In this example, consider the most common setting events:

  • Change in medication
  • New people

What changes can be made to the environment, expectations and/or interactions when these setting events are present?

  • New people can join him in his video games
  • Reduce demands

There are a number of additional options you might choose as well such as:

  • Allowing extra time for video games
  • Identifying a quiet place the learner can go to be away from new people

Let’s take a look at our second example.

Competing Behavior Pathway Attention Example Setting Events

Here is our access to attention example. For this learner, the most common setting event is poor sleep.

What changes can be made to the environment, expectations and/or interactions when this setting event is present?

When the learner has poor sleep, you could:

  • Provide extra attention noncontingently
  • Minimize the time the learner spends alone

As with the other example, there are many different ways you might choose to lesson the impact of the setting events. Consider what is most relevant to the specific learner and the context within which the challenging behavior occurs.

Antecedent Interventions

Antecedent interventions play a significant role in preventing problem behavior. These interventions focus on altering the environment or conditions preceding the behavior. They help to minimize the impact of the triggers that lead to the target behavior and promote appropriate choices.

Let’s continue with our previous examples.

Competing Behavior Pathway Demand and Access Example Antecedent Interventions

In this example, the most common antecedents are:

  • Demands
  • Denied access to video games

What antecedent interventions might reduce the impact of these antecedents on the learner’s target behavior?

  • Give warnings of upcoming demands or transitions
  • Use the Premack Principle to let the learner know he can have the video game back following the task

Let’s look at antecedent interventions for the second example.

Competing Behavior Pathway Attention Example Antecedent Interventions

In this example, the most common antecedents are:

  • Restricted attention
  • Time alone

What antecedent interventions can be used to minimize the impact of the common antecedents on the learner’s tareget behavior?

  • Allow access to preferred activities when attention must be restricted
  • Use. a visual schedule to show when attention will be available

These are examples only. There are many different antecedent interventions available and the right one for your learner will depend on the learner’s specific needs.

Desired Behavior

Here is where you determine the ultimate desired behavior. You chose the functionally-equivalent replacement behavior, but that behavior usually comes at the expense of some important skills or opportunities. Consider the context within which the target behavior(s) commonly occur. How should the learner ideally respond?

Let’s continue with our examples.

Competing Behavior Pathway Example Demand and Access Desired Behavior

In this example, you determined that the learner could ask for more time with his video game. What do you ultimately want the learner to be able to do when demands and denied access come up?

  • Transition away from the video game
  • Complete tasks

Let’s do the same for the second example.

Competing Behavior Pathway Example Attention Desired Behavior

In this example, the functionally-equivalent replacement behavior was to teach the learner to ask for attention by asking his parents to play with him. What do you ultimately want the learner to be able to do when attention is restricted or he needs to spend some time alone?

  • Engage in independent play for 30 minutes

The learner’s parents likely need him to engage in activities on his own for periods of time so they can cook dinner, complete chores, or even shower. This looks like a reasonable and meaningful goal.

Consequence Interventions

When completing the final piece to the Competing Behavior Pathway, choose consequence interventions that will reinforce the desired behavior you selected. These are most commonly some form of Differential Reinforcement procedure but might also include interventions such as token economy or even group contingencies.

Let’s finish out our 2 examples.

Competing Behavior Pathway Demand and Access Example

In this example, you want the learner to transition away from video games and complete tasks. You might choose to include the following consequence interventions in your BIP:

Let’s finish the final example.

Competing Behavior Pathway Attention Example

In this example, you want to choose a consequence intervention that will reinforce the learner’s engagement in independent play. You might choose:

When writing your behavior intervention plan (BIP), you will want to go into more detail about which behaviors will be reinforced and the schedule of reinforcement.

It is essential to build a comprehensive behavior intervention plan that considers setting event accommodations, antecedent interventions, skill development, and consequence interventions to effectively address problem behavior. Careful consideration and application of these strategies will contribute to successful outcomes in function-based interventions.

Want a resources that will help you conduct an FBA and create a function-based BIP? Check out our Master ABA Dojo membership! *

Challenges and Solutions in Choosing Function-Based Interventions

Common Challenges

Choosing the appropriate function-based interventions for addressing challenging behavior can be a complex task. One of the main challenges is the difficulty in accurately identifying the underlying function of the behavior. Without a clear understanding of the function, it becomes challenging to select the most effective intervention strategies.

Another challenge is related to access and implementation of intervention resources. Some schools, clinics and home environments might have limited available resources to effectively implement interventions that might otherwise be effective. These barriers may make it difficult for professionals and educators to access and implement proper intervention strategies.

Lastly, the creation of a comprehensive function-based support plan requires collaboration among different professionals, educators, and family members. Coordinating these stakeholders and aligning their efforts can be challenging and time-consuming.

Potential Solutions

To overcome these challenges, several solutions can be applied. First, it is crucial to conduct a thorough functional assessment to identify the root causes of the problematic behavior. This assessment should involve observation, data collection, and analysis to determine the driving factors behind the behavior. Once the function is understood, evidence-based function-based interventions can be selected more easily, and the chances of intervention success are increased.

When dealing with resource limitations, exploring alternative means of obtaining intervention resources or training can be helpful. For example, schools or clinics can provide training workshops for educators and professionals to ensure they have the knowledge and skills to implement interventions effectively. Schools or clinics may also consider revising their resource policies to include the resources necessary to implement function-based interventions that address challenging behaviors, prioritizing resources that have proven effectiveness.

When developing a function-based behavior support plan, clear communication and collaboration among all stakeholders are essential. Regular meetings and status updates can help synchronize efforts and ensure that everyone involved in the intervention process understands their roles and responsibilities. Additionally, utilizing collaborative tools like shared documents or platforms can aid in streamlining the plan’s development and implementation.

By addressing these challenges and employing appropriate solutions, educational institutions and professionals can successfully select and implement function-based interventions to support learners with challenging behaviors.

Frequently Asked Questions

How to select the best function-based intervention for escape?

When choosing a function-based intervention for escape-maintained problem behavior, it’s essential to consider the individual needs of the learner. A clinical model helps in determining the appropriate intervention by examining the student’s preferred activities and evaluating situations where escape-maintained behaviors could occur. Implementing activity choice interventions (shared control) may minimize the instances of these problem behaviors.

What strategies are effective for attention-based interventions?

Effective attention-based interventions often involve teaching and reinforcing appropriate behaviors that serve a similar function to problem behaviors. Strategies may include differential reinforcement, social skills training, and providing non-contingent attention. By redirecting the student’s action using function-based treatments, educators can promote adaptive responses and reduce the frequency of the problem behavior.

What are the essential components of a function-based intervention plan?

The critical components of a function-based intervention plan include a clear definition of the problem behavior, the identification of its function, the selection of evidence-based strategies for setting events, antecedents, skill development and consequences as well as a data collection plan to evaluate the effectiveness of chosen interventions. By implementing suitable function-based interventions, professionals can support learners in developing appropriate alternative behaviors that serve the same function as problem behaviors.

What interventions are suitable for providing access to tangibles?

Interventions focused on providing access to tangibles can involve the use of token economies, reinforcement schedules, functional communication training, and delay tolerance training. These strategies help students learn to access tangibles in an appropriate manner without engaging in problematic behaviors.

How to address attention-maintained problem behavior through function-based treatments?

Function-based treatments that target attention-maintained problem behavior involve teaching adaptive skills that help learners receive attention more appropriately. By reinforcing alternative behaviors and utilizing strategies such as functional communication training, the learner learns to replace problem behaviors with more socially acceptable actions. Professionals can, therefore, manage attention-maintained problem behaviors effectively by implementing well-suited function-based treatments.

Ethical Considerations Related to Using the Competing Behavior Pathway

The table below presents some important ethical considerations when teaching self-management strategies. The table includes specific action steps to help you ensure you practice in an ethical way.

Ethical ConcernDescription of ConcernAction Steps to Ensure Ethical Practice
Lack of comprehensive assessmentRelying solely on the competing behavior pathway (CBP) might overlook underlying factors influencing behavior. This can lead to inaccurate identification of the primary function and less effective interventions.Conduct thorough functional assessments, including direct observations, interviews, and data analysis, to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the individual’s behavior and its context.
Reductionist approachThe CBP simplifies behavior by categorizing it into competing responses and functions. This might oversimplify complex behaviors and fail to account for the multifaceted nature of behaviors and their underlying causes.Employ a holistic approach that considers psychological, environmental, and cultural factors that contribute to behavior. Avoid reducing behaviors to basic functions without acknowledging their complexity.
Neglecting individual preferencesThe CBP might focus on behaviors that interfere with learning or functioning, but it might not consider behaviors that hold personal significance for the individual. This could lead to interventions that dismiss individual preferences and priorities.Involve the individual and their caregivers in the assessment process to identify behaviors that matter to them personally. Prioritize interventions that respect their preferences while also addressing functional needs.
Overemphasis on behavior reductionThe CBP tends to prioritize the reduction of interfering behaviors. This might lead to interventions that focus solely on suppressing behavior rather than promoting positive skill acquisition and overall well-being.Balance behavior reduction strategies with skill-building interventions that empower the individual to develop alternative behaviors that serve the same function. Strive for comprehensive interventions that improve the individual’s quality of life.
Unintended negative consequencesCBP-driven interventions could inadvertently result in new problematic behaviors emerging as competing responses. This might lead to a cycle of intervention adjustments without addressing the underlying function effectively.Monitor and evaluate the individual’s behavior consistently to identify any unintended negative consequences. Adjust interventions promptly if new problematic behaviors emerge, and ensure that interventions target the primary function rather than just reacting to secondary behaviors.
Cultural insensitivityThe CBP might not adequately account for cultural differences in behavior and its functions. Interventions based solely on the CBP could overlook culturally specific factors that influence behavior and its interpretation.Incorporate cultural competence by involving culturally knowledgeable professionals and seeking insights from the individual’s cultural background. Consider cultural norms, values, and communication styles when formulating interventions and interpreting behavior.
Overlooking potential multiple functionsThe CBP suggests that behaviors have a single primary function and competing behaviors. This may neglect the possibility of multiple functions or complex interactions between behaviors.Remain open to the possibility of multiple functions for a behavior. Consider that behaviors might serve more than one purpose or might interact in intricate ways. Adjust interventions accordingly to address all relevant functions and dynamics.
Limited consideration of contextThe CBP might focus on behaviors in isolation without thoroughly considering environmental and contextual factors. This could result in interventions that don’t account for triggers and maintaining variables that contribute to behavior.Conduct functional assessments within the natural context in which the behavior occurs. Analyze antecedents and consequences that influence the behavior and adapt interventions to address both the individual’s behavior and the environmental context in which it occurs.
Minimizing individual autonomyWhen CBP-driven interventions are imposed without the individual’s input, autonomy might be compromised. This could lead to interventions that do not align with the individual’s preferences and values, affecting their engagement and cooperation.Collaborate with the individual, their caregivers, and any relevant stakeholders when developing interventions. Respect the individual’s autonomy by involving them in the decision-making process and tailoring interventions to their preferences and values while still addressing functional needs.
Neglecting long-term skill developmentFocusing solely on immediate behavior reduction might disregard the importance of teaching long-term adaptive skills. Interventions that ignore skill-building can hinder the individual’s growth and independence.Incorporate skill acquisition goals alongside behavior reduction strategies. Develop interventions that empower the individual to acquire and generalize skills that promote independence and functional success over the long term.

Research Related to Using the Competing Behavior Pathway

Below is a table summarizing research articles related to teaching self-management strategies. The table includes important action steps to help you put these ideas into practice.

Article TitleSummaryAction Steps
From FBA to Implementation: A Look at What Is Actually Being DeliveredThe article discusses the gap between functional behavioral assessments (FBA) and their actual implementation in educational settings. It highlights the need for effective implementation of behavior support plans derived from FBA.Educators should ensure that behavior support plans derived from FBA are effectively executed, considering factors that may hinder or facilitate implementation. Collaboration between teachers and behavior specialists is crucial. Monitoring progress and making adjustments as needed are essential for successful outcomes.
Training Early Childhood Educators to Identify Behavior Function and Select Function-Matched InterventionsThis article addresses training early childhood educators to identify behavior functions and choose interventions accordingly.Early childhood educators should receive training on functional behavior assessment (FBA) techniques to identify behavior functions accurately. Implementing interventions that are matched to identified functions can lead to more effective behavior management.
Building Positive Behavior Support Systems in Schools: Functional Behavioral AssessmentThe article presents a comprehensive approach to building positive behavior support systems in schools through functional behavioral assessment (FBA).Schools should incorporate functional behavioral assessment (FBA) into their behavior support systems. Collaborative efforts between educators, parents, and specialists are crucial for successful FBA implementation and behavior intervention planning.
Functional Assessment: Contributions and Future DirectionsThe article discusses the contributions and future prospects of functional assessment in behavior analysis.Behavior analysts should continue refining functional assessment methods and collaborate across disciplines to advance its effectiveness in understanding and addressing behavior challenges.
Elements of Behavior Support Plans: A Technical BriefThe article outlines essential components of behavior support plans and their development.Professionals should create behavior support plans that include clear goals, data-driven strategies, and collaborative implementation. Ensuring consistency and fidelity of plan execution is crucial for achieving desired behavioral outcomes.
Examining the Effectiveness of Student Involvement in FBA and Intervention ProcessThe study explores the impact of involving students in the functional behavior assessment (FBA) and intervention process.Schools should consider involving students in the FBA and intervention process, fostering their engagement and ownership. Student participation can enhance the effectiveness of behavior support plans and interventions.
Effects of Functional Communication Training on Self-Initiated Toileting BehaviorThe study investigates the effects of functional communication training (FCT) on self-initiated toileting behavior in students with developmental disabilities.Educators should implement functional communication training (FCT) to improve self-initiated toileting behavior in students with developmental disabilities. FCT empowers students to communicate their needs effectively, leading to increased independence.
Function-Based vs. Non-Function-Based Intervention PlansThe article compares the effectiveness of function-based and non-function-based intervention plans in behavior support.Professionals should prioritize function-based intervention planning, as it leads to more successful behavior intervention outcomes compared to non-function-based approaches.
Functional Analysis Assessment in Noncategorical Special EducationThe article highlights the significance of functional analysis assessment in noncategorical special education settings.Professionals working in noncategorical special education should incorporate functional analysis assessment into their practices, ensuring tailored interventions that address the unique needs of students with disabilities.
Longitudinal Outcomes of FBA-Based InterventionThe study examines the longitudinal outcomes of interventions based on functional behavior assessment (FBA).Professionals should conduct FBA to develop intervention plans tailored to student needs. Longitudinal monitoring and adjustments to the intervention plan can lead to sustained positive behavior outcomes over time.
Assessment of Behavior Problems and Use of FBA During Early ChildhoodThe article discusses the assessment of behavior problems and the use of functional behavior assessment (FBA) in early childhood settings.Early childhood educators should employ functional behavior assessment (FBA) to identify and address behavior problems effectively. Collaborative efforts between educators, parents, and specialists enhance the accuracy of FBA results and intervention planning.
Effects of Self-Delivered Performance Feedback and Impact Assessment on Behavior Support PlansThe study examines the effects of self-delivered performance feedback and impact assessment on behavior support plan fidelity and student outcomes.Professionals should utilize self-delivered performance feedback and impact assessment tools to enhance the fidelity and effectiveness of behavior support plans. Regular self-assessment and adjustments contribute to improved student outcomes.
Prevention Strategies for Supporting Students with Escalated BehaviorsThe article presents proactive strategies for supporting students engaging in escalated behaviors.Educators should implement prevention strategies such as structured environments, clear expectations, and individualized supports to mitigate escalated behaviors in students. A proactive approach fosters a positive learning environment and reduces disruptive incidents.
Comprehensive Individualized Curriculum and Instructional DesignThe article focuses on developing comprehensive individualized curriculum and instructional design strategies.Educators should design curriculum and instruction tailored to individual student needs, incorporating functional behavior assessment results. Individualized approaches enhance student engagement, learning, and behavior outcomes.
Functional Behavioral Assessment: PrinciplesThe article provides an overview of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) principles.Professionals should apply the principles of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) to accurately identify behavior functions and design effective interventions. A systematic approach enhances the likelihood of positive behavior change.
Efficacy of Training School Personnel to Build Behavioral Interventions from FBAThe study examines the effectiveness of training school personnel to develop behavioral interventions from functional behavioral assessment (FBA) information.Schools should provide training to personnel in building behavioral interventions based on FBA results. Equipped with this skill, educators can develop targeted interventions that address challenging behaviors effectively.
School-Wide and Individualized Effective Behavior SupportThe article discusses effective behavior support at both school-wide and individual levels.Schools should implement a combination of school-wide positive behavior support systems and individualized interventions based on functional behavior assessment (FBA). This approach promotes a positive school climate and improves student behavior outcomes.

References and Related Reading

Blood, E., & Neel, R.S. (2007). From FBA to implementation: A look at what is actually being delivered. Education and Treatment of Children, 30 (4), 67–80. doi: 10.1353/etc.2007.0021

Cox, L. V. (2016). Training Early Childhood Educators to Identify Behavior Function and Select Function-Matched Interventions.

Crone, D. A., & Horner, R. H. (2003). Building positive behavior support systems in schools: Functional behavioral assessment. New York: Guilford.

Horner, R. H. (1994). Functional assessment: Contributions and future directions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(2), 401–404. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1994.27-401

Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Todd, A. W., & Lewis-Palmer, T. (2000). Elements of behavior support plans: A technical brief. Exceptionality8(3), 205-215.

Huntington, R. N. (2018). Examining the Effectiveness of Student Involvement in the Functional Behavior Assessment and Intervention Process (Doctoral dissertation).

Kim, J. (2012). Effects of functional communication training (fact) on the communicative, self-initiated toileting behavior for students with developmental disabilities in a school setting.

Ingram, K., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Sugai, G. (2005). Function-based intervention planning comparing the effectiveness of FBA function-based and non-function-based intervention plans. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(4), 224–236. doi: 10.1177/10983007050070040401

Gresham, F. M., & Noell, G. H. (1998). Functional analysis assessment as a cornerstone for noncategorical special education. Functional and noncategorical identification and intervention in special education, 39-64.

Kern, L., Gallagher, P., Starosta, K., Hickman, W., & George, M. L. (2006). Longitudinal outcomes of functional behavioral assessment-based intervention. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8, 67–78. doi: 10.1177/10983007060080020501

McIntyre, L. L., & Golya, N. (2016). Assessment of Behavior Problems and the Use of Functional Behavioral Assessment During Early Childhood. Early Childhood Assessment in School and Clinical Child Psychology, 119-138.

Pinkelman, S. E. (2014). Effects of self-delivered performance feedback and impact assessment via the individual student information system (ISIS-SWIS) on behavior support plan treatment fidelity and student outcomes (Doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon).

Robinson, J., Duncan, K., London, D., Gershwin, T., Trapp, L., & Shen, G. (2022). Prevention Is the Best Intervention: Proactive Strategies for Supporting Students Who Engage in Escalated Behaviors. Beyond Behavior31(3), 163-174.

Sennott, S., Loman, S., Park, K. L., Pérez, L. F., Kennedy, M. J., Romig, J., & Rodgers, W. J. (2015). Comprehensive individualized curriculum and instructional design, 61-87.

Skinner, C. H. (2001). Functional Behavioral Assessment: Principles, Procedures. School Psychology Review30(2), 156-172.

Strickland-Cohen, M. K. (2012). An examination of the efficacy of training school personnel to build behavioral interventions from functional behavioral assessment information (Doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon).

Tobin, T. J., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Sugai, G. (2002). School-wide and individualized effective behavior support: An explanation and an example. The Behavior Analyst Today3(1), 51.

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